1. Many properties of cesium carbonate in organic synthesis come from the soft Lewis acidity of cesium ion, which makes it soluble in organic solvents such as alcohol, DMF and ether.
2. The good solubility in organic solvents enables cesium carbonate as an effective inorganic base to participate in chemical reactions catalyzed by palladium reagents such as Heck, Suzuki and Sonogashira reactions. For example, the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction can achieve a yield of 86% with the support of cesium carbonate, while the yield of the same reaction with the participation of sodium carbonate or triethylamine is only 29% and 50%. Similarly, in the Heck reaction of methacrylate and chlorobenzene, cesium carbonate has obvious advantages over other inorganic bases, such as potassium carbonate, sodium acetate, triethylamine, and potassium phosphate.
3. Cesium carbonate also has a very important application in realizing the O-alkylation reaction of phenol compounds.
4. Experiments speculate that the phenol O-alkylation reaction in non-aqueous solvents induced by cesium carbonate is likely to have experienced phenoloxy anions, so the alkylation reaction can also occur for high-activity secondary halogens that are prone to elimination reactions. .
5. Cesium carbonate also has important uses in the synthesis of natural products. For example, in the synthesis of Lipogrammistin-A compound in the key step of the ring-closing reaction, the use of cesium carbonate as an inorganic base can obtain closed-ring products with high yields.
6. In addition, due to the good solubility of cesium carbonate in organic solvents, it also has important uses in solid-supported organic reactions. For example, the three-component reaction of aniline and solid-supported halide is induced in a carbon dioxide atmosphere to synthesize carboxylate or carbamate compounds with high yield.
7. Under microwave radiation, cesium carbonate can also be used as a base to realize the esterification reaction of benzoic acid and solid-supported halogens.